ANSWER Chloroquine-resistant malaria is exactly what it sounds like—particular types of malaria which are not cured by treatment with chloroquine. Chloroquine was first discovered in the 1930s in Germany and began to be widely used as an anti-malaria post-World War II, in the late 1940s. Cornea verticillata chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine vision side effects Drug resistance has been implicated in the spread of malaria to new areas and re-emergence of malaria in areas where the disease had been eradi-cated. Drug resistance has also played a significant role in the occurrence and severity of epidemics in some parts of the world. Population movement has introduced resistant parasites to areas. Southeast Asia is the epicentre of P falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs. Chloroquine resistance emerged there more than 40 years ago, and within 20 years chloroquine became largely ineffective. Chloroquine is now reserved for P vivax, P malariae, or P ovale in this region. In Thailand, mefloquine was introduced as first-line treatment. During the past year, confirmed chloroquine-resistant infections have been described from specific areas in Zambia 3 and Sudan 4; previously, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Madagascar, and the Comoros Islands were acknowledged to have transmission of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. Since then, resistance has spread rapidly (since obviously it is beneficial to the parasite to be resistant, so various mutations conferring this protection have arisen multiple times in different areas in the world and also been passed on preferentially to new generations of malaria parasites), and now chloroquine resistant are found in multiple locations in south-east Asia, such as Myanmar and India, as well as from Guyana in South America. However, resistance to the drug also rapidly emerged, with the first cases of not being cured by administration of chloroquine being reported in the 1950s. Chloroquine resistance areas Prevalence of chloroquine and antifolate drug resistance., Mefloquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and. Is diarrhea a side effect of hydroxychloroquinePlaquenil and flagyl togetherPlaquenil and radiation therapy toxiciy Chloroquine Aralen In areas where chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum or chloroquine-resistant P. vivax are NOT reported, start treatment on the following schedule Day 1. Chloroquine 1 gm salt by mouth immediately, then chloroquine, 500 mg salt, 6 hours later. 500 mg salt = 300 mg base Day 2. Chloroquine, 500 mg orally; Day 3. Malaria Travel & Health Guide, 2019 Online Book. Update Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum -- Africa. Chloroquine C18H26ClN3 - PubChem. DRUG RESISTANT MALARIA Chloroquine resistance Chloroquine is ineffective in almost all malaria endemic countries In India chloroquine resistance was first detected in 1973 in Assam. Severe in northeast and southeastern regions of India with high morbidity and mortality. The term “chloroquine resistance” can lead to misunderstandings when it is considered by some to refer to in vitro phenotypes, by others to refer to the ability of malaria parasites to survive chloroquine at therapeutic serum concentrations in vivo, and yet by others to refer to the outcome of a clinical episode after chloroquine therapy. Chloroquine phosphate tablets are indicated for the Treatment of uncomplicated malaria due to susceptible strains of P. falciparum, P.malariae, P. ovale, and P.vivax. Prophylaxis of malaria in geographic areas where resistance to Chloroquine is not present. Treatment of extraintestinal amebiasis.